An inviting Montessori classroom featuring child-sized furniture, natural light, and neatly organized educational materials on low shelves is designed to promote independent learning and creativity among young children.

The Six Principles of the Montessori-Prepared Environment You Need to Know

The Montessori classroom is unique. It is not only a place for children to learn but also a carefully designed environment that fosters independence, creativity, and a lifelong love of learning. 

Dr. Montessori believed that children have an inner drive to explore and learn from their surroundings. Her first classroom, Casa dei Bambini (Children’s House), established in 1907, is aimed at nurturing this natural curiosity. She worked with underprivileged children and observed that a stimulating environment could help them realize their full potential.

 This stimulating environment does not happen by itself; it should be prepared. Therefore, it is called the ‘Prepared Environment’. 

The prepared environment goes beyond materials, furniture, and decorations. It is a philosophy that guides the teachers in arranging their classroom in order to support a child’s holistic development. Here are six key principles that lay the foundation for creating a prepared environment for our children.

1. Freedom

A Montessori classroom has designated areas with Practical Life, Sensorial, Language, Mathematics, and Cultural materials. There, children have the freedom to explore their interests and choose materials that attract their curiosity. This freedom fosters a sense of independence and empowers them to take ownership of their learning.

 Children experience the freedom to move, work, and repeat their purposeful work. This is a truly natural habitat where the children can grow without much assistance from adults.

However, freedom exists within boundaries/limits. These limits are the ground rules of the Montessori classroom: respect for oneself, others, and the environment. By following these ground rules, the children will learn to make safe choices and develop responsibility. 

2. Structure and Order

There is Structure and Order in the prepared environment. Everything has a place, and everything is in its place.

Children between the ages 1 and 3 experience a sensitive period for order. They will internally feel secure and be able to predict their surroundings when their external environment is designed with structure and order. A prepared environment with structure and order will fulfill their ‘craving’ for stability, order, and consistency. It also reflects the sense of structure and order in our universe, which they will grasp. 

One way this order is established is through designated areas for Montessori materials on shelves. Each material has a certain place; therefore, it should always be returned to its place. This consistency helps children know where to find things and return them after use, fostering a sense of responsibility and respect for their surroundings. This consistency does not mean that the Montessori classroom refuses changes, but the changes should be considered and monitored to ensure they are beneficial for the children

3. Beauty and Calming Atmosphere

Unlike traditional classrooms, which can feel overwhelming because of all the colorful decorations, the Montessori environment is designed to be aesthetically calming, beautiful, and inviting. Whether in a school or at home, the environment should reflect a sense of harmony and peace. If the children are naturally merged with this atmosphere, then they will feel inner-calm and not be easily dysregulated. It also helps them to concentrate and focus on their work.

Everything in this classroom should be kept clean, neat, and well maintained so it will invite learners to come in and work. Natural light streaming through windows, calming colors on the walls, and plants in some pots will add a sense of beauty to a classroom. Through this beautiful environment, creativity, imagination, and a love of learning will be nurtured and grown. 

The calming atmosphere extends beyond visible material. The Montessori classroom is a place where both teachers and children build respectful communication. When the teachers act as guides rather than dictators, the children feel secure enough to express their needs and ideas. This fosters a sense of calm and allows children to approach learning with a sense of joy and wonder. 


Children engage in outdoor learning activities within a Montessori environment, using child-sized gardening tools to explore and interact with nature, promoting a hands-on learning experience.

4. Nature and Reality

A prepared environment is not limited to a space that we call a classroom. Dr. Montessori believed that nature is not only another place for learning, but it can also be a powerful teacher. She encourages children to stay outdoors rather than confining them to the classroom. Nature, with all of the living and nonliving creatures, will bring amazement and lots of knowledge to the children.

Together with exposing nature to the children, natural and real materials are also preferred in the prepared environment. Real wood, reeds, bamboo, metal, cotton, and glass are used instead of synthetics or plastics. Child-size furniture and tools, such as rakes, hoes, and shovels, are designed to fit children’s hands and height, making work easier and reducing frustration.

A botany area with real plants, pinecones, leaves, and rocks becomes a place of exploration and discovery. Children can manipulate these natural objects at their own pace, igniting their curiosity about the natural world and fostering a sense of wonder. Montessori classrooms often have gardens where children can participate in planting seeds, caring for plants, and witnessing the cycle of life firsthand.

5. Social Environment

Multi-aged classrooms are a common feature in Montessori education. This allows older children to act as mentors and role models for younger ones, fostering a sense of community and responsibility.  Children learn to work and play together, developing empathy and compassion for others.  Collaborative activities like group projects or dramatic play encourage children to communicate effectively, resolve conflicts peacefully, and appreciate the diverse perspectives of their peers.

Grace and courtesy lessons are another cornerstone of social development in the Montessori classroom. Children learn the importance of greetings, taking turns, and respecting personal space.  These social skills become the foundation for strong relationships and a sense of respect within the classroom community.

6. Intellectual Environment

The Montessori environment goes beyond traditional academics. It’s designed to nurture the whole child—intellectual, social, emotional, and physical. Through the five core areas of the Montessori curriculum – Practical Life, Sensorial, Language, Mathematics, and Culture – children are exposed to a variety of stimulating activities that cater to their individual learning styles and interests.

The environment provides developmentally appropriate materials that progress from simple to complex and concrete to abstract. For instance, Montessori math materials might use beads and rods to represent abstract concepts. Children can manipulate these materials at their own pace. The teacher acts as a guide, observing their progress and offering gentle nudges when needed.

A detailed view of Montessori learning materials, including knobbed cylinders, metal insets, etc., all arranged to stimulate curiosity and learning.

Things to Remember

Creating a Montessori-prepared environment takes dedication, but the rewards are immense. By understanding and implementing these six key principles, parents and educators can create a nurturing space that empowers children to become independent, creative, and lifelong learners.  These children will not only develop strong academic skills but also a sense of self-confidence, empathy, and a deep appreciation for the world around them.

The Montessori philosophy offers a unique and powerful approach to early childhood education. If you are passionate about nurturing young minds and creating a nurturing learning environment, then a Montessori teacher education program might be the perfect next step for you. 

Our program equips you with the knowledge, skills, and practical experience needed to become a professional Montessori educator.  Join us and embark on a journey to make a positive impact on the lives of children!

The six guiding principles of Montessori’s prepared environment are: freedom within limits, order, beauty, nature, social interaction, and intellectual stimulation. These principles create a nurturing space where children can develop independence, curiosity, and essential life skills.

The primary aim of the Montessori-prepared environment is to nurture the whole child, fostering intellectual, social, emotional, and physical development. It goes beyond traditional academics, creating a space where children can learn and grow at their own pace.

The Montessori teacher acts as a guide, not a dictator. They observe children’s progress, offer gentle support when needed, and create a safe and stimulating environment that encourages independent exploration and discovery.